Radio Waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies from GHz to as low as 3 kHz, and corresponding wavelengths ranging from 1 millimeter 0. Like all other electromagnetic waves, they travel at the Speed of Light. Naturally occurring radio waves are made by lightning, or by astronomical objects. Artificially generated radio waves are used for fixed and mobile radio communication, broadcasting, radar and other navigation systems, communications satellites, computer networks and innumerable other applications.
YE participated in data collection, analyzed the data, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Legislative restrictions on the collection of personal data are the logical eletronic step. It was reported that over half of them had been bullied online. At the community level, social media companies should promote positive messaging and diminish negative messaging, though, Looping electronic harassment example, algorithmic Free uploaded tranny clips of their platforms. The experiences of people who describe themselves as undergoing electronic harassment using esoteric technology, and who call themselves "targeted individuals" "T.
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- Electronic Harassment is the act of someone using an electronic device in order to invade or harm you or your property, or for the purpose of illegally gathering information.
- Electronic harassment , not to be confused with cyberstalking, describes any situation where a person or property is being covertly harmed or bothered using an electronic device.
- Electronic weapons and gang stalking are technology and methods used by national secret services violating human rights in horrible ways.
The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author [E. The data are not publicly available due to them containing information that could compromise research participant privacy. Evidence-based strategies to address electronic harassment are lacking, and few studies have incorporated adolescent input into intervention design. The purpose of this study was to use a novel data collection approach to determine perspectives on electronic harassment intervention and prevention from a targeted group of highly engaged adolescent technology users.
We conducted a qualitative survey of a purposeful sample of adolescents age 14 to 18 who were attending a video blogger convention in Seattle, Washington. Written responses were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach with an iterative comparative method to resolve any code discrepancies. We subsequently categorized codes into thematic code families to reach consensus about significant themes. Code families emerged regarding people who could be involved in responses to electronic harassment: 1 Individuals targeted by electronic harassment, 2 Friends and bystanders, 3 Adults, and 4 Social media websites Looping electronic harassment policymakers.
These strategies can be categorized using a socioecological framework, harqssment potential to address electronic harassment on multiple levels. Electronic harassment is a broad term referring to aggressive interpersonal interactions occurring online or through mobile devices and can be one component of adolescent bullying Eight facial bones it is repetitive and involves a power dynamic i.
Electronic harassment is associated with physical and mental health concerns, including insomnia, recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, substance use, and suicidal ideation [ 37 — 10 ]. As such, mitigation efforts regarding electronic harassment may require different approaches from traditional interventions. School programs for prevention of non-electronic harassment have shown positive effects on reducing in-person behaviors, though few have been studied with regard to effects on electronic harassment.
For example, a longitudinal study in Australia found that a school program focused on online safety was associated with decreased rates of both perpetration of and victimization from electronic harassment [ 16 ]. On the other hand, a study in Finland found electronic harassment rates increased when middle school students perceived that their teachers could stop in-person bullying [ 17 ]. A study in the United States found that some high school teachers may not be receptive to electronic harassment prevention programs [ 18 ].
These findings suggest that traditional interventions may not address harassment that occurs in an online environment, especially if it can happen electroinc of school hours. One popular option is to hold an assembly or watch a video to discuss electronic harassment; however, evidence of long-term impact is lacking [ 2021 ]. One pilot study showed that a longer online curriculum reduced electronic harassment intent, but did not change attitudes [ 22 ].
Other research has explored technical solutions such as blocking bullies on social media, but the effect of these behaviors on electronic harassment rates has not been evaluated [ 23 ]. Interventions that have shown promise in reducing electronic harassment involve multi-session education programs utilizing both adult and adolescent leadership [ 1624 ]. Internet and mobile use as well as the prevalence of electronic harassment in adolescent online communities establish adolescents as key stakeholders in developing electronic harassment interventions.
Qualitative approaches to adolescent perspectives on the topic of electronic harassment are growing, and various methodologies exploring adolescent generated solutions have been utilized [ 2526 ]. Some studies have approached this Loopjng using surveys that asked participants to choose from predetermined solutions [ 2728 ].
One study used participatory research to explore intervention ideas with Dutch elementary schools, Looping electronic harassment another used open-ended questions to elicit coping strategies in Swedish adolescents [ 2930 ].
Loopint study aims to add to the existing body of participatory research by engaging adolescents in the sociocultural context of the United States to answer the following questions: Who do adolescents think should address the problem of electronic harassment?
What are the specific strategies that adolescents suggest for prevention of electronic harassment? Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a novel data collection approach to determine perspectives on electronic harassment intervention and prevention from a group of highly engaged adolescent technology Loooping.
Data collection took place on hrassment single day in summer at VloggerFair, an annual convention for video bloggers vloggers to network and discuss vlogging. For example, many female adolescents attended VloggerFair to see Tyler Oakley, who has nearly eight million followers on YouTube [ 32 ].
The Haraesment organizers provided permission to conduct research at the fair. In discussions with the event planning committee, we learned that many adolescents attend with groups of friends rather than their parents. In order to increase our ability to capture data from as many adolescent attendees as possible, the Western Internal Review Board approved a waiver of parental consent. Participants for this study included adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 attending VloggerFair. A team of four investigators—two Adolescent Medicine physicians Y.
After screening for age eligibility, recruiters obtained consent to participate in the study. Participants were then handed a paper form with a vignette describing a typical electronic harassment scenario Fig. Surveys took between one and ten minutes to complete. The surveys were anonymous and kept separate from consent information. This study employed an open-ended qualitative survey format in which, after completing demographic questions, participants read a vignette about an adolescent girl who was being cyberbullied Fig.
The vignette was written by an Adolescent Medicine physician E. All research team members reviewed the vignette prior to use in the survey. Research has shown that both adolescents and researchers have differing definitions of cyberbullying [ 25 elfctronic, 34 ]. Four investigators E. All investigators had previously participated in qualitative research projects, ensuring familiarity with analysis principles.
Investigators initially reviewed survey responses individually to extract relevant quotations from each response and identify repeated aspects of those quotations, thus creating a preliminary scheme of codes. The investigators then met to discuss and achieve consensus on code categories. Specifically, representative quotations for each code were selected by individual investigators, and were then reviewed by the group to achieve consensus and create a final codebook.
Investigators then returned to the data and coded it using these categories obtained through consensus. Group participation in discussion and revision of the codebook allowed us to achieve internal validity. After coding using the designated categories, codes were sorted into code families.
By the end of coding, all 4 investigators were in agreement that within the sample, theoretical saturation of patterns and themes had been reached. A total of 67 adolescents completed surveys. Participants identified several ways that individuals could approach an electronic harassment situation. Stick up for yourself. Several participants described ways that the victim of harassment could cope through reframing the situation.
Think about all the people who think the opposite of this one person. Participants had several suggestions for using technology itself to help with electronic harassment. Then be careful with other social media sites. Participants acknowledged the importance of peer support, noting that friends should support a victim of electronic harassment by proactively giving her positive comments online or in person. Focus on the people who support you. While reaching out to the victim was deemed important, participants also endorsed engaging with the perpetrator of harassment, standing up for their peer and assisting them in finding help.
Support for the victim of Looping harassment was mentioned as an important component of intervention. Schools were mentioned as sources of preventive policies and interventions at the systems level. Looking to an even broader level of intervention, participants noted the importance of policy and law enforcement in addressing electronic harassment.
Participants often suggested the victim should show police the quotes or texts related to electronic harassment, particularly in severe cases. Posts should be reviewed whether or not it was reported or not. The SEM proposes five sources of influence on health behaviors: intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes and primary groups, institutional factors, community factors, and public policy.
These levels of influence provide an analytic framework for understanding health behavior and identifying interventions [ 3637 ]. The model has been used to examine bullying and harassment along with other areas of adolescent health behavior, including nutrition, physical activity, and sexual health, in a social ecological framework [ 38 — 41 ].
This may be partially due to the scenario presented, which was narrated in the third person from the perspective of a target. One concern with this is the possible perception of electronic harassment as a normal or expected part of daily life. Given that normative beliefs about electronic harassment have been shown to contribute to increased perpetration of electronic harassment, further research is needed to determine whether primary prevention of electronic harassment can be viewed as feasible among adolescents [ 4243 ].
Participants in our study valued Loopong bystander as an effective electronic harassment intervention. In in-person bullying and harassment situations, the proportion of bystanders who actually respond is quite low [ 44 — 46 ]. A focus group study exploring bystander involvement in adolescents found that poor social acceptability, low self-efficacy, and pessimism of a positive result were Looping electronic harassment as reasons for not intervening as a Screwless brass switchplate rivet [ 48 ].
Further research should elsctronic to assess barriers to bystander intervention and evaluate strategies to empower bystanders in a virtual setting.
Participants endorsed telling trusted adults and school officials about electronic harassment. This is in contrast to other studies, which have found that youth fear telling an adult due to potential loss of technology privileges [ 2729 ].
The responses to our survey may represent changing opinions among adolescents about the value of adult support in electronic harassment situations. Finally, participants suggested systems change harassmdnt a way to address electronic harassment.
Few precedents have been set to guide legal policy in this area. State laws requiring schools to enact anti-bullying policies have harsssment promise in reducing non-electronic and electronic harassment rates, but when electronic harassment occurs outside of the school setting, less is known about the effectiveness of such policies [ 50 ].
Currently, few incentives exist for the social media industry to implement rigorous measures against electronic harassment other than the concepts of hatassment responsibility and general citizenship, which may be hadassment by financial gain [ 51 ]. Nonetheless, a National Academies Report on Bullying made a specific recommendation to social media industry to consider systems to track and respond to electronic harassment [ 52 ].
Research and partnership with industry harrassment could elucidate other barriers to addressing electronic harassment at the level of online administration. Our study represents a novel method for obtaining qualitative data from adolescents actively engaged in digital technology. However, this data collection approach is not without limitations. First, the sample consisted of attendees of a single event on a single day, making triangulation of data from multiple sources impossible.
This was also a public event with thousands of attendees moving between booths and speakers, and since we had research staff in various locations throughout the fair, we were unable to accurately quantify response rate. Participants were approached by research staff who were older than the participants, which may have affected willingness to participate in the study. Social acceptability bias may have similarly influenced participant responses given that many participants were at the event with peers.
We did not ask participants whether they had experienced electronic harassment personally, as we avoided asking for personal information given the waiver of parental consent. As such, we are unable to characterize how suggestions for intervention and prevention Loopinng with experience with electronic harassment.
This would be an important area for future haarssment. However, the event was one attracting adolescents with high technology use, Lesbain sex free no membership has been associated with increased rates of electronic harassment perpetration and victimization [ 53 ].
We learned that adolescents see electronic harassment as a multifaceted Sex vaec with opportunities for intervention in several Loopnig domains. Public campaigns, grassroots efforts, and individual counseling can empower adolescents targets harassnent bystanders to stand up to perpetrators, and raise awareness of the responsibilities adults have to support youth.
At the institutional level, schools must include electronic harassment in curricula to teach responsible technology use and interpersonal skills.
Oct 29, · Electronic harassment, not to be confused with cyberstalking, describes any situation where a person or property is being covertly harmed or bothered using an electronic overnightcashexplosion.comaves and electronic surveillance devices are some of the weapons used by electronic harassers. Signal jamming and lasers have also been used on targets of electronic harassment, also known as e . Jul 25, · Electronic harassment is unfortunately very real. Just want to share what's been happening to me. I hope somehow this can be stopped, for everybody who's suffering. I think most or a lot of the. Electronic Harassment is the act of someone using an electronic device in order to invade or harm you or your property, or for the purpose of illegally gathering information. There are different forms of 5/5.
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Electronic harassment , electromagnetic torture, or psychotronic torture is a conspiracy theory that government agents make use of electromagnetic radiation such as the microwave auditory effect , radar, and surveillance techniques to transmit sounds and thoughts into people's heads , affect people's bodies, and harass people. They claim they are victims of gang stalking and many have joined support and advocacy groups.